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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2020| July-September  | Volume 32 | Issue 3  
    Online since July 4, 2020

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Ocular dirofilariasis in bosnia and herzegovina: A case report and review of the literature
Jasmin Zvornicanin, Edita Zvornicanin, Fatima Numanovic, Zineta Delibegovic, Damir Husic, Merima Gegic
July-September 2020, 32(3):293-296
Purpose: To report a rare occurrence of ocular dirofilariasis in Bosnia and Herzegovina and provide a short overview on clinical characteristics and treatment options for ocular dirofilariasis. Methods: A 75-year-old woman was admitted to the University Clinical Centre Tuzla with pain and redness in her left eye. A live, white, coiled, and active worm was noticed in subconjunctival space of bulbar conjunctiva. Results: After successful surgical extraction, the parasite was identified as the adult form of Dirofilaria repens. There were no signs of intraocular or systemic inflammation. Conclusion: Ophthalmologists should have in mind a possible infestation, especially in cases with repeated inflammatory reactions and swelling of the ocular region, which does not respond to conventional therapy.
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Effect of smoking on tear stability and corneal surface
Norhani Mohidin, Adlie B Jaafar
July-September 2020, 32(3):232-237
Purpose: To determine the effect of smoking on tear stability and ocular surface of the cornea among students aged between 19 and 25 years. This study also aimed to find a correlation between tear film stability with a score of McMonnies Dry Eye Questionnaire (MDEQ) and Ocular Surface Disease Index Questionnaire (OSDI). Methods: This is a prospective, non-interventional, comparative study of 59 male (27 smokers and 32 non-smokers) undergraduates of a public university. Tear film stability was evaluated using non-invasive tear break-up time and fluorescein tear break-up time. Corneal staining was determined using Efron grading scale. MDEQ and OSDI Questionnaires were used to assess dry eye symptoms. Data were obtained from the right eye only and analyzed using descriptive and correlation analysis. Results: The age range of the participants was between 19 and 25 years. The mean age for smokers and non-smokers was 22.19 ± 2.20 and 21.22 ± 1.83 years, respectively (P = 0.07). The smoker group had statistically significant lower tear film stability than the non-smoker group (P < 0.0001). Corneal staining was statistically significant higher at the nasal and temporal parts of the cornea in smokers (P < 0.05). There was a moderate correlation between tear film stability and scores of MDEQ and OSDI. Conclusions: Tobacco smoke has a significant effect on the tear film stability, seen in reduced tear stability values among smokers. Corneal staining was found to be more extensive in the smokers. These findings would be useful to eye-care providers in the management of their dry eye patients related to smoking.
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Variability in imaging findings in choroidal nevus using multicolor imaging vis-à-vis color fundus photography
Ramesh Venkatesh, Arpitha Pereira, Sajjan Sangai, Kushagra Jain, Ishank Gupta, Aditya Aseem, Vivek Singh, Naresh Kumar Yadav
July-September 2020, 32(3):285-289
Purpose: To describe the multicolor imaging (MCI) features in a series of patients diagnosed with a choroidal nevus and compare it vis-à-vis color fundus photography (CFP) in identifying the lesion. Methods: In this retrospective, descriptive case series at a tertiary referral center in South India, all patients diagnosed with the choroidal nevus underwent CFP, optical coherence tomography, MCI, and infrared reflectance (IR) imaging. Results: In this study, we found that on MCI, the choroidal nevus could be identified in only six of the 12 eyes. The lesions were seen as an area of hyperreflectance on IR image and orange-colored lesion on multicolor image. In one eye, there was a mixed pattern of hyper and hyporeflectance on IR imaging. The remaining five eyes with choroidal nevus lesions were not identified on MCI. Conclusion: The variable features of the choroidal nevus on MCI are most likely due to the variable melanin content within the nevus cells. Further studies are needed to validate these findings.
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Herpes zoster ophthalmicus and limbal ischemia in a patient with history of ocular graft-versus-host disease
Golshan Latifi, Esmaeil Asadi Khameneh
July-September 2020, 32(3):290-292
Purpose: To report a rare complication of herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO). Methods: A 27-year-old man with a history of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) presented with pain and redness in his left eye along with vesicular eruptions on the same side of the forehead from 40 days earlier. Results: In this case report, we present a case of HZO with severe limbal ischemia in a patient with ocular GVHD. The patient was administered with intensive topical preservative-free lubrication, topical preservative-free antibiotics, topical autologous serum 20%, topical non-preservative steroid (methylprednisolone 1%), and oral valacyclovir 1 g twice daily. The patient underwent amniotic membrane patch surgery on bulbar conjunctiva and cornea, lateral tarsorrhaphy, and punctal occlusion for the left eye. Conclusion: In this report, severe and extensive limbal ischemia caused by herpes zoster virus in an immunocompromised patient is reported.
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Treatment outcome of acquired retinal pigment epithelial tumors with rhuthenium-106 plaque radiotherapy: Experience on two cases
Masood Naseripour, Ahad Sedaghat, Parya Abdolalizadeh, Ehsan Azizi
July-September 2020, 32(3):297-301
Purpose: To report the clinical outcome of rhuthenium-106 plaque radiotherapy in acquired retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) tumors. Methods: In this interventional case series, two eyes of two patients with clinically diagnosed ocular-acquired RPE tumors including adenoma and adenocarcinoma underwent plaque radiotherapy with rhuthenium-106. The clinical findings and visual outcome of the patients were evaluated. Results: The first patient was a 44-year-old male, and the second was a 32-year-old female. The follow-up times were 24 and 32 months. The tumor was unilateral and hyperpigmented in both cases, located at juxtapapillary in one patient and on peripheral part of the retina in the other. Vitreous hemorrhage and peripheral exudation were obvious in one patient. Macular edema, epiretinal membrane, and retinal feeder vessels were also detected in the examination. The patients underwent plaque radiotherapy with rhuthenium-106 as the first step of management. The tumor has been stable until the last follow-up in both patients with globe preservation and acceptable visual acuity (5/10 for the first case and 4/10 for the second case). Conclusion: Rhuthenium-106 plaque radiotherapy might be a conservative therapy in the management of acquired RPE tumors and prevent early enucleation.
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Deep keratomycosis following ahmed glaucoma valve implantation
Tarannum Mansoori, Arjun Srirampur, Satish Gooty Agraharam, Ashok Kumar Reddy
July-September 2020, 32(3):302-304
Purpose: To report an unusual case of deep keratomycosis after Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) implantation. Methods: A 70-year-old male presented with a deep corneal stromal infiltrate, without epithelial involvement, 3 weeks after a successful AGV implantation for neovascular glaucoma. Microscopic examination of the anterior chamber exudates revealed fungal filaments on smear, and white fungal colonies were observed on the Blood agar and Sabouraud dextrose agar. The fungus was identified as Aspergillus flavus. Results: The patient was treated with oral and topical 1% voriconazole. Ten weeks after the treatment, the corneal infiltrate resolved, resulting in a vascularized scar. Conclusion: As recalcitrant keratomycosis of the deep corneal layers may occur after AGV implantation, early identification and prompt treatment may help to achieve complete resolution of the infection and salvage the eye.
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Comment on the article: Outcome of sclerokeratoplasty in devastating sclerocorneal infections
Arjun Srirampur
July-September 2020, 32(3):305-305
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Reply to letter: Outcome of sclerokeratoplasty in devastating sclerocorneal infections
Shreya Thatte, Ankita B Dube, Trupti Dubey, Malvika Krishan
July-September 2020, 32(3):306-306
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The distribution of vertical cup-to-disc ratio and its determinants in the Iranian adult population
Hassan Hashemi, Reza Pakzad, Mehdi Khabazkhoob, Mohammad Hassan Emamian, Abbasali Yekta, Akbar Fotouhi
July-September 2020, 32(3):226-231
Purpose: To determine the distribution of vertical cup-to-disc ratio (VCDR) and its relationship with ocular biometric indices. Methods: This study was conducted in 4737 individuals aged 45-69 years living in Shahroud who participated in the second phase of Shahroud Eye Cohort Study in 2014. All participants underwent eye examinations including the measurement of visual acuity and refraction, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, retinal examination, and fundoscopy. Normality index was used to describe data distribution, and a multiple beta regression, with adjustment for the effect of cluster sampling, was applied to explore the relationship between VCDR and the study variables. Results: The mean [95% confidence interval (CI)] VCDR was 0.297 (0.293-0.301) in all participants; 0.296 (0.291-0.302) in men and 0.297 (0.292-0.302) in women. The highest mean VCDR was seen in the age group 55-59 years (0.299, 95% CI: 0.292-0.307). The 97.5th percentile was 0.600. According to multiple beta regression analysis, VCDR had a positive association with the female sex (P = 0.028), spherical equivalent (P < 0.001), cigarette smoking (P = 0.020), and axial length (P < 0.001), and had a negative association with hypertension (P = 0.001), best corrected visual acuity (P < 0.001), hyperlipidemia (P = 0.029) and anterior chamber depth (P = 0.001). Conclusions: The mean VCDR and the 97.5th percentile were lower than most other studies. Although ethnicity and race may play a role in this difference, this difference should be considered in clinical decisions in the current population.
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Ophthalmic manifestations of rosai-Dorfman disease in five patients
Babak Masoomian, Sara E Lally, Jerry A Shields, Carol L Shields
July-September 2020, 32(3):238-243
Purpose: To report clinical features, pathology characteristics, and treatment outcomes of five patients with Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD). Methods: A retrospective case series of patients with RDD from the Ocular Oncology Service of Wills Eye Hospital between 1974 and 2018. Results: There were six eyes of five patients (3 males, 2 females) with ophthalmic manifestations of RDD. The mean age at the initial presentation was 33 years (median 35, range 10–52 years). Before referral, the tumor was initially suspected to be lymphoma (n = 3), idiopathic orbital inflammation (n = 2), or pterygium (n = 1). The disease was unilateral (n = 4) or bilateral (n = 1). The mean duration of symptoms was 9 months (median 8, range 5–24 months). The disease produced nodules in the conjunctiva (n = 4) or orbit (n = 2). Two patients with conjunctival involvement had corneal involvement. One patient with bilateral conjunctiva lesions demonstrated bilateral orbital involvement and bilateral anterior uveitis. The mean tumor basal dimension was 13 mm (median 9, range 6–27 mm) for conjunctiva lesions and 37 mm (median 37, range 34–40 mm) for orbital lesions. The main symptom (per patient) included proptosis (n = 2), palpable mass (n = 1), and foreign body sensation (n = 2). No patient experienced pain or tenderness. Palpable, nontender lymphadenopathy was detectable in two patients in the cervical and inguinal lymph nodes. Systemic involvement with paranasal sinusitis and mediastinal/pulmonary lymphadenopathy occurred in two patients, both with orbital involvement. Surgical resection was performed for all patients. At a mean follow-up of 31 months (median 12, range, 10–76 months) after the surgery, tumor control was achieved in all six eyes without local recurrence. Conclusion: In this series of six eyes with RDD, patients with orbital and/or intraocular disease were more likely to demonstrate lymphadenopathy and systemic involvement, while those with unilateral perilimbal conjunctival tumors remained localized.
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Association of conjunctival dysplasia (squamous intraepithelial neoplasia) with melanosis (microscopic non-proliferative melanin pigmentation)
Seyede Fariba Fattahi, Mohammad Reza Khalili, Roshanak Aliakbar Navahi, Mohammad Javad Ashraf
July-September 2020, 32(3):244-248
Purpose: To determine the association between conjunctival epithelial dysplasia (squamous intraepithelial neoplasia) and its melanosis (microscopic non-proliferative melanin pigmentation) in conjunctival biopsies. Methods: In this retrospective case series, histopathological slides from all conjunctival biopsies obtained in Khalil Hospital affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences for a period of 6 years (April 2009–July 2015) were reviewed. After considering the exclusion criteria (non-melanotic pigmentation, melanocytic proliferations, and squamous cell carcinoma), conjunctival biopsies were divided histopathologically into two groups of dysplastic and non-dysplastic. Then, the slides were reviewed by one ophthalmopathologists and one general pathologist. Melanin pigmentation was recorded in both groups as 0, 1+, 2+, and 3+. The data were analyzed, and the groups were compared. Results: Overall, 685 cases with a mean age of 47.78 (±17.74) years were included in this study. Dysplastic and non-dysplastic groups comprised 135 (19.7%) and 550 (80.3%) specimens, respectively. Seventy-six percent (76%) of the specimens in the dysplastic group versus 40% in the non-dysplastic group had melanosis (P = 0.001). However, the degree of dysplasia (1+, 2+, and 3+) was not statistically correlated with the degree of melanosis (1+, 2+, and 3+) (P = 0.393). Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that melanosis is a common finding in conjunctival epithelial dysplasia and might indicate an association with conjunctival epithelial dysplasia.
  - 1,054 125
Delhi infectious keratitis study: Update on clinico-Microbiological profile and outcomes of infectious keratitis
Manisha Acharya, Javed Hussain Farooqui, Tanuj Gaba, Arpan Gandhi, Umang Mathur
July-September 2020, 32(3):249-255
Purpose: To study the clinico-microbiological profile and outcomes of infectious keratitis (IK) at a tertiary eye care center in North India. Methods: This is a retrospective, hospital-based, cross-sectional study. One thousand seven hundred and eighty-six corneal microbiological reports were identified from January 2017 to December 2018, out of which 625 patients of IK fulfilled the inclusion criteria. They underwent microbiological examination which included corneal scrapings, culture, and antibiotic sensitivity. Demographic features, signs and symptoms, risk factors such as associated trauma, previous ocular surgery, and use of corticosteroids were also recorded. Results: Of the 625 patients, 68.2% were male and 31.8% were female. The age group affected most was the sixth decade; 21.9% (137 cases). Trauma was the most common associated risk factor in 151 cases (24.2%) followed by previous ocular surgery in 111 (17.8%). Out of the 625 corneal scrapings, 393 (62.9%) were culture-positive. Bacterial culture accounted for 60.6% (238/393) and fungal cultures were 143 (36.4%). More than 50% of the bacterial keratitis cases and more than 60% of the fungal cases had a favorable outcome. Staphylococcus sp. and Fusarium sp. were the most common bacteria and fungus isolated, respectively. Only one-third of the cases required surgical intervention, and the remaining two-thirds were managed medically. Conclusions: In the current study, cultures were positive in 63% of cases, and the majority of cases had bacterial growth. Surgical intervention was needed in one-third of the cases. Management of corneal infections is incomplete without a good microbiological workup. Ophthalmologists should be encouraged to learn and practice basic staining procedures, and this should start early in the training years.
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Corneal collagen cross-linking using epithelium disruptor instrument in progressive keratoconus
Seyed Mohammad Salar Zaheryani, Hossein Movahedan, Ramin Salouti, Sahar Mohaghegh, Sara Javadpour, Mohammad Shirvani, Farzaneh Kasraei, Shahram Bamdad
July-September 2020, 32(3):256-262
Purpose: To compare the effects of accelerated corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) in progressive keratoconus (KCN) patients via epithelium removal and transepithelial techniques, using Daya Disruptor (Duckworth and Kent, Hertfordshire, UK). Methods: This study is a double-blinded, randomized clinical trial. Patients with documented bilateral progressive KCN were randomized into two groups: one eye underwent epithelium removal (Group 1), and the fellow eye underwent epithelium disruption (Group 2). The primary outcomes were best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), Scheimpflug-extracted keratometric indices, and anterior segment-optical coherence tomography-derived epithelial thickness profiles. These parameters were evaluated before and 12 months after CXL. Results: Sixty-four eyes from 34 patients with progressive KCN (34 eyes in the epithelium-removal group and 30 eyes in the epithelium-disruption group) were included. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) of age was 23.4 ± 3.8 years in the epithelium-removal group and 23.2 ± 3.5 years in the epithelium-disruption group. The mean ± SD of the preoperative spherical equivalent (SE), front maximum keratometry (K-max), back K-max, thickness of thinnest point, and corneal apex thickness were − 2.9 ± 3.0 diopter (D) and − 3.7 ± 3.1 D (P = 0.183), 53.8 ± 5.15 D and 54.4 ± 5.53 D (P = 0.653), −6.63 ± 2.40 D and − 6.68 ± 2.48 D (P = 0.131), 459.2 ± 37.4 μm and 460.8 ± 32.7 μm (P = 0.708), 470.5 ± 37.7 μm and 469.7 ± 33.1 μm (P = 0.679), and 55.4 ± 4.97 μm and 54.6 ± 7.16 μm (P = 0.767) in the epithelium-removal and epithelium-disruption groups, respectively. The mean ± SD changes of the UCVA and BCVA 12 months after CXL were − 0.1 ± 0.11 and − 0.02 ± 0.18 and − 0.04 ± 0.12 and − 0.02 ± 0.14 in the epithelium-removal and epithelium-disruption groups, respectively. No statistically significant improvement was observed in the UCVA and BCVA between the two groups (P = 0.868 and P = 0.937, respectively). The mean ± SD changes of the SE, superior epithelial thickness, corneal apex thickness, and thickness of thinnest point 12 months after CXL were − 0.21 ± 1.1 D and + 0.32 ± 1.6 D (P = 0.0001), −0.08 ± 0.26 μm and + 0.03 ± 0.33 μm (P = 0.028), −23 ± 11 μm and − 2 ± 6 μm (P = 0.0001), and − 25 ± 8 μm and − 3 ± 7 μm (P = 0.0001) in the epithelium-removal and epithelium-disruption groups, respectively. Conclusions: This study showed that the epithelium-disruption CXL using Daya has a similar potential for halting KCN progression as the epithelium-removal CXL. However, regarding the 12-month changes, the epithelium-disruption CXL is superior to the epithelium-removal CXL in the SE and corneal pachymetry.
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Analysis of age, gender, and refractive error-related changes of the anterior corneal surface parameters using oculus keratograph topography
Nasrin Moghadas Sharif, Negareh Yazdani, Leila Shahkarami, Hadi Ostadi Moghaddam, Asieh Ehsaei
July-September 2020, 32(3):263-267
Purpose: To assess refractive error, gender, and age-related differences in corneal topography of a normal population with Oculus Keratograph 4. Methods: This cross-sectional study included a total of 500 normal eyes of 500 individuals with ages ranging from 10 to 70 years. All participants underwent detailed ocular examinations, including visual acuity measurement, slit-lamp examination, and refractive error evaluation. Slit-lamp examination was performed for all individuals to rule out apparent corneal diseases. Corneal topography parameters were assessed using Oculus Keratograph. The data were analyzed based on gender, refractive error, and age groups using independent sample t-test and one-way analysis of variance. Results: Of a total of 500 participants (age: 29.51 ± 11.53 years) recruited for the present study, 66.4% were female, and 33.6% were male. The mean spherical equivalent of refraction was − 0.98 ± 1.65 diopters. Significant differences were noted in steep keratometry (P = 0.035) and corneal astigmatism (P = 0.014) between genders. Assessment of the data based on refractive error revealed significant differences in an index of vertical asymmetry (P < 0.001), index of height asymmetry (P = 0.003), and index of height decentration (P = 0.011). Considering age groups, significant differences were observed in flat keratometry readings (P < 0.001), mean corneal astigmatism (P = 0.02), minimum radius of curvature (P = 0.037), and apex power (P < 0.001). Conclusions: There was a prominent variation in some topographic parameters based on gender, age, and refractive error. The information on corneal parameters obtained with Oculus Keratograph from normal eyes provides a reference for comparison with diseased corneas.
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Performance of plusoptix A09 photo screener in refractive error screening in school children aged between 5 and 15 years in the southern part of India
Avinash V Prabhu, Jyothi Thomas, Ramesh S Ve, Sayantan Biswas
July-September 2020, 32(3):268-273
Purpose: To evaluate the performance of Plusoptix A09 in detecting ametropia, warranted against frequently-used technique of retinoscopy in children attending school (5–15 years) and its probability as a screening tool. Methods: This study was the subset of a larger epidemiological study visual acuity refractive error squint conducted in schools to determine the prevalence of ocular morbidity among the 5–15 years' school children population. Every 7th student in the class (each school had mean value of 100 students) was randomly selected for this study after ascertaining their eligibility as per the inclusion criteria. A cohort of a total of 150 children within the age group of 5–15 (mean, 10.21 ± 2.83) years were recruited from 11 schools of Udupi district. Students with best corrected visual acuity of 20/20, refractive error within ±5.00 diopter (D), without any eccentric fixation, and no history of ocular pathology or seizures were recruited. Refractive error was tested by Plusoptix photorefractor followed by non-cycloplegic and cycloplegic retinoscopic techniques. The examiners performing these tests were masked and unware of the findings. Bland Altman plotted the agreement between the techniques, followed by the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC), and sensitivity of Plusoptix. Results: One-way analysis of variance calculated statistical differences among Plusoptix, objective retinoscopy, and cycloplegic retinoscopy for mean spherical value (1.12 ± 1.16 D, 0.65 ± 0.69 D, and 0.8 ± 0.82 D), cylindrical value (−0.83 D ± 1.27, −0.32 D ± 0.86, and −0.34 D ± −0.93), and spherical equivalent value (0.71 D ± 1.06, 0.45 D ± 0.7, and 0.61 D ± 0.81), with P = 0.0001, 0.0001, and 0.097, respectively. Bland Altman plots showed good agreement for spherical equivalent values of Plusoptix and objective retinoscopy. However, the area under the ROC curve (0.386) suggests that lower diagnostic ability of this device in this age group population in comparison to retinoscopy (0.575) with the sensitivity and specificity of Plusoptix was 69.2% and 84.8%. Conclusions: This study fails to report ideal sensitivity mandated for a screening tool, although good specificity and agreement are observed. Along with retinoscopy, this tool will be effective in screening a children's population aged between the age group of 5 and 15 years.
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Development and validation of the persian version of the MNREAD acuity chart
Roghiyeh Elham, Ebrahim Jafarzadepur
July-September 2020, 32(3):274-280
Purpose: To develop the Persian version of MNREAD acuity charts and test their repeatability in a normal adult population. Methods: Two hundred sentences were constructed using the most frequent words of 8-year-olds schoolbooks. The number of characters and sentence length were adjusted based on the design principles of the Minnesota Low Vision Reading Test. Two Persian language teachers checked the sentences for syntax and meaning. The accepted sentences were read by 20 adults and then by 20 children. Using RADNER charts method, the sentences with inappropriate reading time and repeated errors were excluded. Thirty-eight sentences were approved to create charts. To check the charts' validity and repeatability, 20 adults read both charts and a paragraph of a daily newspaper. Reading acuity, critical print size, and maximum reading speed were calculated. The measured reading speeds were compared to the readers' reading speeds for a paragraph of a daily newspaper. Bland-Altman plots were used to evaluate the agreement between the two charts. Results: Thirty-eight selected sentences were used in the final printed charts. There were significant correlations between maximum reading speed for Charts 1 and 2 (r = 0.87, P <0.0001), Chart 1 and newspaper paragraph (r = 0.73, P = 0.001), and Chart 2 and newspaper paragraph (r = 0.83, P = 0.0001). Correlations were observed between reading acuities and critical print sizes of two charts (r = 0.72, P <0.002 and r = 0.77, P = 0.00). The 95% limits of agreement in reading acuity, critical print size, and reading speed between Charts 1 and 2 were ± 0.034 logMAR, ±0.11 logMAR, and ±8.00 words per minute, respectively. Conclusion: The designed Persian MNREAD charts are repeatable and could be used reliably to calculate near acuity, reading speed, and critical print size in Persian-speaking people.
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Changes in lower lid position after standard phacoemulsification cataract surgery
Maria García Zamora, Victoria E Marqués Fernández, María Calabuig Goena, Cecilia Díez Montero, Silvana A Schellini, Rajiv Khandekar, Alicia Galindo Ferreiro
July-September 2020, 32(3):281-284
Purpose: To evaluate the changes on the position of the lower lid after phacoemulsification surgery using objective methods. Methods: This prospective study evaluated the lower lid position of cataract carriers who underwent to phacoemulsification surgery from January to May 2017. Data were collected on demographics, type of anesthesia, duration of the surgical procedure, and duration of the speculum remained in place. Standardized digital photographs of the patient's face in primary gaze position were obtained preoperatively and 1, 30, 90, and 180 days, postoperatively. The data were analyzed on the distraction test, distance of the lower lacrimal punctum from the inner canthus, and margin reflex distance 2 (MRD2). Comparative and correlation statistical analyses involving preoperative and postoperative measurements were performed. Results: One hundred twelve cataract patients comprised the study sample. There were 68 (60.7%) females with a median age of 74 (interquartile range, 70–81) years old. The mean distraction test value before surgery was 7 ± 2 mm and 6.8 ± 1.8 mm 180 days postoperatively (P = 0.02). The mean lacrimal lower punctum distance changed from 5 ± 1.1 mm preoperatively to 5.4 ± 1 mm at 180 days postoperatively (P = 0.06). The mean MRD2 preoperatively was 5 ± 1 mm and increased to 5.4 ± 0.9 mm 180 days after surgery (P = 0.02). The duration of surgery and the duration that speculum remained in place were not correlated to MRD2 (P = 0.7; P = 0.98). Conclusions: There is a mild lower lid laxity after phacoemulsification reflected by slight increased lacrimal lower punctum distance to the inner canthus and MRD2. Lacrimal lower punctum distance and MRD2 vary along the study and remained altered at 180 days after surgery, while distraction test tends to recover to similar preoperative levels. Although lid laxity is common in elderly cataract carriers, even a short procedure as phacoemulsification can mildly increase flaccidity.
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Non-surgical management options of intermittent exotropia: A literature review
Samira Heydarian, Hassan Hashemi, Ebrahim Jafarzadehpour, Amin Ostadi, Abbasali Yekta, Mohamadreza Aghamirsalim, Nooshin Dadbin, Hadi Ostadimoghaddam, Fahimeh Khoshhal, Mehdi Khabazkhoob
July-September 2020, 32(3):217-225
Purpose: To review current non-surgical management methods of intermittent exotropia (IXT) which is one of the most common types of childhood-onset exotropia. Methods: A search strategy was developed using a combination of the words IXT, divergence excess, non-surgical management, observation, overcorrecting minus lens therapy, patch/occlusion therapy, orthoptics/binocular vision therapy, and prism therapy to identify all articles in four electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and Scopus). To find more articles and to ensure that the databases were thoroughly searched, the reference lists of the selected articles were also reviewed from inception to June 2018 with no restrictions and filters. Results: IXT is treated when binocular vision is impaired, or the patient is symptomatic. There are different surgical and non-surgical management strategies. Non-surgical treatment of IXT includes patch therapy, prism therapy, orthoptic sessions, and overcorrecting minus lens therapy. The objective of these treatments is to reduce the symptoms and the frequency of manifest deviation by decreasing the angle of deviation or enhancing the ability to control it. Conclusions: Evidence of the efficacy of non-surgical management options for IXT is not compelling. More comprehensive randomized controlled trial studies are required to evaluate the effectiveness of these procedures and detect the most effective strategy.
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