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 Table of Contents  
CASE REPORT
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 32  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 302-304

Deep keratomycosis following ahmed glaucoma valve implantation


1 Sita Lakshmi Glaucoma Center, Anand Eye Institute, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
2 Department of Cornea, Anand Eye Institute, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
3 Department of Retina, Anand Eye Institute, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
4 GHR Microdiagnostics, Hyderabad, Telangana, India

Date of Submission24-Sep-2019
Date of Decision14-Oct-2019
Date of Acceptance11-Apr-2020
Date of Web Publication04-Jul-2020

Correspondence Address:
Tarannum Mansoori
Sita Lakshmi Glaucoma Center, Anand Eye Institute, Nagendra Nagar, Habsiguda, Hyderabad - 500 007, Telangana
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/JOCO.JOCO_142_20

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  Abstract 


Purpose: To report an unusual case of deep keratomycosis after Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) implantation.
Methods: A 70-year-old male presented with a deep corneal stromal infiltrate, without epithelial involvement, 3 weeks after a successful AGV implantation for neovascular glaucoma. Microscopic examination of the anterior chamber exudates revealed fungal filaments on smear, and white fungal colonies were observed on the Blood agar and Sabouraud dextrose agar. The fungus was identified as Aspergillus flavus.
Results: The patient was treated with oral and topical 1% voriconazole. Ten weeks after the treatment, the corneal infiltrate resolved, resulting in a vascularized scar.
Conclusion: As recalcitrant keratomycosis of the deep corneal layers may occur after AGV implantation, early identification and prompt treatment may help to achieve complete resolution of the infection and salvage the eye.

Keywords: Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation, Corneal endoexudates, Deep keratomycosis, Voriconazole


How to cite this article:
Mansoori T, Srirampur A, Agraharam SG, Reddy AK. Deep keratomycosis following ahmed glaucoma valve implantation. J Curr Ophthalmol 2020;32:302-4

How to cite this URL:
Mansoori T, Srirampur A, Agraharam SG, Reddy AK. Deep keratomycosis following ahmed glaucoma valve implantation. J Curr Ophthalmol [serial online] 2020 [cited 2020 Oct 26];32:302-4. Available from: http://www.jcurrophthalmol.org/text.asp?2020/32/3/302/288935




  Introduction Top


Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) implantation is performed for intraocular pressure (IOP) control in the cases of refractory glaucoma. Eye rubbing and conjunctival dehiscence over the AGV tube are the risk factors for endophthalmitis, as the normal ocular flora gains intraocular access from the eroded conjunctiva.[1],[2],[3]

We report a case of deep keratomycosis following AGV implantation, where prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment contributed to a favorable outcome.


  Case Report Top


A 70-year-old male, known diabetic underwent an uneventful AGV implantation (FP 7 model, New World Medical Inc., Rancho Cucamonga, USA) in the superotemporal quadrant of the left eye. Postoperatively, his best corrected visual acuity was 20/40; conjunctiva was well apposed; there were a diffuse bleb over the AGV plate, a clear cornea, and a well-positioned AGV tube, away from the corneal endothelium and iris; and IOP was 6 mmHg.

Two weeks later, he presented with the complaints of sudden decrease in the vision and pain and redness in the left eye, of 1-day duration. He denied any history of trauma. The best corrected visual acuity in the left eye was 20/200; slit-lamp examination showed edematous lids, an intact conjunctiva over the donor sclera and AGV plate, and Seidel's test was negative. There was a peripheral, yellowish color, corneal infiltrate at 12.30–1.30 o'clock position, which was 4 mm × 2 mm in size, involving the deep stroma and endothelium, without any overlying epithelial defect, and with a hypopyon [Figure 1]. IOP was 28 mmHg, and the vitreous cavity was clear. Nasolacrimal duct was patent in both the eyes. Aqueous tap and corneal endothelial exudate aspirate were sent for microbiological assay, which revealed fungal filaments in 10% potassium hydroxide mount and Gram stain [Figure 2]. White fungal colonies were observed after a 48 h of incubation on blood agar and Sabouraud dextrose agar. The white colonies on Sabouraud dextrose agar plates turned powdery and green after 4 days of incubation [Figure 3]. Lactophenol cotton blue stain of the colony showed a variable length, rough conidiophores, ending with a round vesicle. A single row of phialides (uniseriate) covering the entire vesicle was noted. The fungus was identified as Aspergillus flavus.
Figure 1: Slit-lamp photograph of the left eye at presentation, showing a congested conjunctiva, yellowish peripheral corneal infiltrate involving the deep corneal stroma as an endothelial plaque (black arrow) with an intact superficial epithelium and hypopyon (yellow arrow)

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Figure 2: Photomicrograph of Gram stain showing the presence of septate, fungal branching hyphae (arrow) in the corneal scrapings

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Figure 3: Photomicrograph of a 4-day-old growth of corneal exudates, showing white powdery surface colonies (arrow) of Aspergillus flavus inoculated on the Sabouraud dextrose agar culture plate

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The patient was started on 2 hourly topical 5% natamycin, topical brimonidine 0.2% thrice daily, and oral ketoconazole 200 mg twice daily. During the follow-up visit, his best corrected visual acuity improved to 20/100 and the hypopyon resolved. However, the exudates on corneal endothelium continued to increase in size and density. He was started on oral voriconazole 200 mg twice daily and hourly topical 1% voriconazole, which was prepared in the hospital pharmacy under aseptic condition, from pure powder form (Vorier injection, Zydus Pharmaceuticals, Pennington, NJ, USA).

During each follow-up visit, the extent of endothelial infiltrate was documented. After 10 weeks, his best corrected visual acuity improved to 20/30, and the infiltrate resolved with resultant endothelial plaque and opaque vascularized opacity [Figure 4]. Oral and topical antifungal medications were discontinued and till the last follow-up visit at 3 years after the initial presentation, no signs of recurrence were noted.
Figure 4: Slit-lamp photograph of the left eye, 10 weeks after voriconazole therapy, showing a quiet eye, resolution of hypopyon, and vascularized peripheral corneal scar (arrow)

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  Discussion Top


Predisposing factors for the postoperative mycotic infection are ocular trauma, especially with organic matter, ocular surface disease, contact lens wear, use of topical corticosteroids, diabetes mellitus, and loose or broken suture.[4],[5]

A. flavus is a filamentous, ubiquitous fungus, isolated from the soil, plant debris, and indoor air environment, known to cause opportunistic infection in the immunocompromised individuals, accounting for 80% of Aspergillus keratitis.[6] Voriconazole is a broad-spectrum triazole antifungal agent which causes inhibition of cytochrome P-450-mediated 14-α-lanosterol demethylation, resulting in ergosterol depletion and fungal cell wall destruction. It has demonstrated its efficacy in the management of refractory fungal filamentous keratitis.[7],[8]

Risk factors for the keratomycosis in this patient could be diabetes and the use of topical steroids. The corneal traction suture track may serve as a nidus for localized infection due to the epithelial breakdown, but in this case, the site of corneal traction suture had healed and was away from the site of keratitis. The source of infection in this case was exogenous, most probably from the patient's surroundings. The early manifestation could have been in the form of superficial keratitis, which partially resolved after the corneal scraping due to the debulking of the organism. The fungal filaments possibly remained dormant in the deep corneal layers from the contiguous spread from the surface, and continued to grow, with the overlying intact epithelium, especially with the continued use of topical steroids.

A non-resolving corneal infection could also lead to endophthalmitis, if not treated on time. Postoperative fungal endophthalmitis after AGV implant is rare but has been reported in 0.8–6.3% of eyes after the implantation of a glaucoma drainage device, with the onset usually delayed by more than 6 weeks, secondary to the conjunctival erosion or tube exposure.[3],[9],[10] In this case, the deep seated infiltrate progressed, but showed resolution once the patient was started on topical and oral voriconazole and fortunately did not progress to endophthalmitis.

To the best of our knowledge, deep seated keratomycosis after AGV implantation has not been reported in literature. The deep corneal infiltrate seen in this case illustrates another potential complication after AGV and emphasizes the significance of regular follow-up and the need to educate patients to seek medical help at earliest, if they notice any of the mentioned symptoms, to avoid ocular morbidity.

Declaration of patient consent

The authors certify that they have obtained all appropriate patient consent forms. In the form, the patient has given his consent for his images and other clinical information to be reported in the journal. The patient understands that his name and initials will not be published, and due efforts will be made to conceal identity, but anonymity cannot be guaranteed.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Christakis PG, Tsai JC, Kalenak JW, Zurakowski D, Cantor LB, Kammer JA, et al. The Ahmed Versus Baerveldt study: Three-year treatment outcomes. Ophthalmology 2013;120:2232-40.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Riva I, Roberti G, Oddone F, Konstas AG, Quaranta L. Ahmed glaucoma valve implant: Surgical technique and complications. Clin Ophthalmol 2017;11:357-67.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Al-Torbak AA, Al-Shahwan S, Al-Jadaan I, Al-Hommadi A, Edward DP. Endophthalmitis associated with the Ahmed glaucoma valve implant. Br J Ophthalmol 2005;89:454-8.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Srinivasan M. Fungal keratitis. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2004;15:321-7.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Kloess PM, Stulting RD, Waring GO 3rd, Wilson LA. Bacterial and fungal endophthalmitis after penetrating keratoplasty. Am J Ophthalmol 1993;115:309-16.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Khairallah SH, Byrne KA, Tabbara KF. Fungal keratitis in Saudi Arabia. Doc Ophthalmol 1992;79:269-76.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Bunya VY, Hammersmith KM, Rapuano CJ, Ayres BD, Cohen EJ. Topical and oral voriconazole in the treatment of fungal keratitis. Am J Ophthalmol 2007;143:151-3.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Mittal V, Mittal R. Intracameral and topical voriconazole for fungal corneal endoexudates. Cornea 2012;31:366-70.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Stewart MW, Bolling JP, Bendel RE. Nocardia brasiliensis endophthalmitis in a patient with an exposed Ahmed glaucoma drainage implant. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2013;21:69-70.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Salim NL, Azhany Y, Abdul Rahman Z, Yusof R, Liza-Sharmini AT. Infected Baerveldt glaucoma drainage device by Aspergillus Niger. Case Rep Ophthalmol Med 2015;2015:249419.  Back to cited text no. 10
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4]



 

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